Cotton Gene Bank:

  • Large Gene bank: India has one of the world’s largest gene banks with an array of 11,345 accessions of all the four cultivated species. India is the only country in the world that cultivates all the four species Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum and G. herbaceum. The gene bank is an invaluable treasure of a wide range of economically important quality traits that can be sourced and pyramided into cultivars with resistance to identified biotic and abiotic stresses and are suitable for specific agro-eco zones in the country. The gene bank provides a powerful opportunity to combat the challenges posed by climate change uncertainties. The recent techniques of fibre evaluation in the field provide new opportunities for plant breeders.
  • The National Centre for Cotton Genetic Resources with more than 11,345 accessions of the four cultivated species of Gossypium (G. hirsutum – 8265, G. barbadense- 305, G.arboreum – 1936, G. herbaceum - 565) and twenty six wild species, 193 perennials, six races of G.arboreum and seven races of G. hirsutum, one race of G. barbadense, one race of G. herbaceum and 32 derivatives are maintained in the species garden at CICR, Nagpur. Germplasm lines were screened and number of lines with good agronomic traits, superior fibre quality and resistance to pests and diseases were identified and distributed to end – users. It is second largest world collection after USA.

Varietal Improvement:

  • The World’s best extra-long staple variety ‘Suvin’ was developed by CICR.
  • The CICR varieties, LRA 5166, LRK 516, Surabhi, Suraj and many others possess excellent adaptability characteristics and are being commonly utilized in majority of the highly adaptive commercial private hybrids that are grown across the country.
  • The institute has released fourteen varieties of G. hirsutum, three variety of G.arboreum, seven intra- hirsutum hybrids, two hirsutum x barbadense (inter-specific) hybrids, and one intra arboreum hybrid. The public sector transgenic Bt cotton variety Bikaneri Nerma (BN Bt) was also jointly developed by the CICR, NRCPB and UAS, Dharwad and released by the GEAC, Govt. of India for commercial cultivation.
  • The first public Bt hybrid N HH-44-Bt was approved by GEAC for commercial cultivation in Central and South cotton zones of the country. The hybrid is developed by CICR, Nagpur in collaboration with UAS, Dharwad, NRCPB, New Delhi, and MAU, Parbhani.
  • Twenty five unique cultures/lines were registered with NBPGR as Indian National Genetic Resource. Several multiple adversity resistant (MAR) lines having resistance against grey mildew, alternaria leaf spot and bacterial leaf blight have been developed.
  • Several other innovative aspects of useful research include the discovery of apomixes trait, cleistogamy, temperature sensitive male sterility and five-loculed genotypes. Under the Diversification and utilization of male sterility system, 82 genotypes were converted under CMS background, 66 genotypes were converted under GMS background. 12 GMS based hybrids were found to be promising in multi-location trials.
  • Promotion of Bt varieties: Twenty-one elite Bt varieties were tested in multi-location trials at 19 locations for their adaptability to insect pests and diseases. Based on the trial results, three Bt cotton genotypes namely RS 2013, PAU 1, F 1861 has been approved by ICAR for preparation of the release proposal and seed production during off season so that the sufficient quantity of seed can be given to the farmers for commercial cultivation. Based on the same evaluation trial, promising varieties for Central Zone (Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat) and South Zone (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamilnadu) are being identified.
  • Development of varieties suitable for Machine picking: Six lines have been identified - early maturing, compact plant type with tolerance to sucking pest and good fibre quality which matures in 130 days coupled with jassid tolerance and compact plant architecture. Cultures CNH 15, CNH 75, CNH 09-4, CNH 09-62, CNH 1122 and CNH 1123 are under testing in AICRP on Cotton trial.
  • Naturally colored cotton : MSH 53 (Vaidehi 95) a dark brown colourlintedintrogressed derivatives was developed and registered with NBPGR, New Delhi (Reg. No. INGR 13032).Vaidehi 95 is tolerant to jassidsand  CLCuV and is high yielding. It also showed colour fastness on storage.
  • Coloured linted arboreum improvement : Three naturally coloured lint cultures of Desicotton (G. arboreum) viz. CNA 405 (Narrow leaf lobe and brown linted), CNA-406 (Broad leaf lobe and brown linted) and CNA-407 (Narrow leaf lobe, Spotless petals and brown linted), with superior fiber quality (26.3 – 27.3 mm staple length; 3.8-4.3 micronaire; 19.2 – 20.8 g/tex fiber strength) have been developed. Fibre quality traits, colour intensity and colour stability properties were evaluated. 
  • Utilisation of wild species : Cytomorphologically stable male sterile plants have been identified in the derivatives of multispecies hybrids involving wild species G. raimondi, G. thurberi and cultivated species G.hirsutum and G barbadense. Wild species were used for introgression of useful characters and also for identifying new source of CMS. Elite lines with economic attributes and marker genes were isolated in the inter-specific hybrid derivatives. Gene for immunity to bacterial blight was introgressed into G.hirsutum from G. anomalum and dwarf early maturing bacterial blight immune variety NISD-2 (Arogya) was evolved.
  • Conservation of traditional landraces: Two hundred and thirty five cotton germplasm including 167 perennials, 35 landraces and 33 traditional cultivars belonging to G. arboreum, G. herbaceum and G. barbadense were collected from different states of India viz., Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram (North Eastern Hill region), Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh (Central India), Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka (South India).The important landraces Karunganni cotton (G. arboreumrace ‘indicum’), Ponduru Cotton (G. arboreumrace ‘indicum’), Mathio (G. arboreumrace ‘indicum’) and Comilla (G. arboreum race cernuum) were collected. All the collected germplasm variants were established in the field conditions and the seeds were stored for conservation in the medium term cold storage.
  • .
List of varieties/hybrids released
Sl.No..
Varieties/ hybrids
Year of release
Spinning potential (counts)
Area of adaptability
Remarks
Gossypium hirsutum
1 MCU5VT 1984 60s Verticillium wilt prone tracts of
Tamil Nadu
Verticillium wilt tolerant with yield potential upto 25 q/ha
Fiber quaity: length 32.16 mm; strength 24.0 g/tex; GOT 35.43%.
2 LRA 5166 1983 40s Rainfed and irrigated tracts of southern cotton zone & Vidarbha (Maharashtra) CLCuD reesistance variety, Drought toletant, suitable for different agro-climatic conditions with yield potentioal upto 25-30 q/ha under irrigated and 10-15 q/ha under rainfed conditions.
Fiber quaity: length 26.6 mm; strength 22.33 g/tex; GOT 40.12%.
3 Supriya 1985 50s Irrigated tracts of southern cotton zone. Ideally suited for summer irrigated condition Tolerant to Whitely, Bacterial blight and moderately tolerant to jassids and yield potential upto 20 q/ha
Fiber quaity: length 28.0 mm; strength 21.6; g/tex; GOT 38%.
4 Kanchana 1988 40s Whitefly prone area of southern
cotton zone
Whitefly tolerant
Fiber quaity: length 26.6 mm; strength 22.33 g/tex;
5 Anjali (LRK 516) 1992 40s Rainfed and irrigated conditions of Maharashtra, Gujarat and south Rajasthan especially under multiple cropping condition Early maturing, compact & .semidwarf., suited for closer spacing has yield potential upto 20 q/ha under normal spacing and 30 q/ha under HDPS. Tolerant to Jassids.
Fiber quaity: length 28.8 mm; strength 21.3 g/tex; GOT 38.0%.
6 KIRAN (CNH 36) 1993 40s Irrigated areas of western Maharashtra and southern and middle Gujarat Dwarf early maturing. Tolerant to Jassids
Fiber quaity: length 26.3 mm; strength 19.2 g/tex.
7 Arogya (NISD 2) 1996 12s Rainfed areas of central zone Resistant to Bacterial blight, Shrot fiber and suitable for Denims and canvas and has yield potential upto 20 q/ha.
Fiber quaity: length 24.3 mm; strength 23.4 g/tex; GOT 48.8%.
8 Surabhi 1997 60s South zone ideal for summer cotton Resistant to Verticillium wilt, Bacterial blight, and alternaria leaf spot. Extra long staple, yielding uptp 20 q/ha.
Fiber quaity: length 31.6 mm; strength 24.4 g/tex; GOT 35.09%.
9 Sumangala 2001 40s South zone Long staple variety, moderately resistant to sucking pest and yield potential upto 30 q/ha.
Fiber quaity: length 26.5 mm; strength 21.2 g/tex; GOT 37.19%.
10 Pratima
(CNH 120 MB)
2001 30s Irrigated areas of south zone, also suitable for rainfed condition. Compact, early maturing, Tolerant to moisture stress and has synchronised boll opening, Medium staple with high fibre strength.
Fiber quaity: length 23.2 mm; strength 24.4 g/tex; GOT 32.1%.
11 Suraj (CCH 504-4) 2008 50s Irrigated areas of south zone. Most adaptable, sucking pest tolerant, good yield with good fiber quality and has yield potential upto 25 q/ha. Suitable for organic cultivation and HDPS.
Fiber quaity: length 30.3 mm; strength 23.8 g/tex; GOT 40.1%.
12 Saraswati (CNHO 12) 2009 20s Central zone Suitability for manufacture of denim. high oil content of 21.8% and yield potential of 15-17 q/ha.
Fiber quaity: length 24.6 mm; strength 20.9 g/tex; GOT 35%.
13 CSHG 1862 2013 40s North Zone GMS based hybrid with good fiber quality.
Fiber quaity: length 27.8 mm; strength 22.0 g/tex; GOT 34.5%.
14 CCH 2623 2015 40s South Zone High yieding medium staple variety, tolorant to jassids and major diseases.
Fiber quaity: length 25.4 mm; strength 21.1 g/tex; GOT 36.9%.
Transgenic cotton
1 BN Bt 2008 - All cotton growing zones Resistant to cotton bollworms.
Fiber quaity: length 26.6 mm; strength 22.33 g/tex;
Gossypium arboreum
1 CICR 1 (CISA 310) 2010 - Irrigated areas of north zone Tolerant to fusarium wilt and root-rot..Tolerant to sucking pest and bollworm. Early matyrity with yield potential of
32-36 q/ha.
2 CICR 3 (CISA 614) 2010 - Irrigated areas of north zone Early maturing. Superior fibre qualities. high GOT.
3 Roja (CNA 1003) 2011 - Rainfed area of south zone. ideal for HDPS. Resistant to major diseases and pests.
Fiber quaity: length 24.3 mm; strength 21.1 g/tex; GOT 35.7%
Intra-specific hybrid(Intra hirsutum)
1 Savitha 1987 60s Irrigated tracts of southern cotton zone Intra-hirsutum hybrids of MCU 5 quality with yield potential upto 25-30 q/ha. Tolerant to Verticillium wilt.
Fiber quaity: length 31.26 mm; strength 23.76 g/tex; GOT 35.57%.
2 Kirthi (CICR HH I) 1992 40s Rainfed areas of Marathwada region of Maharashtra Early maturing hybrid. Moderately resistant to Bacterial blight, alternaria, Myrothecium, Grey Mildew.
Fiber quaity: length 25.8 mm; strength 19.2 g/tex; GOT 35.1%.
3 Surya (TM 1312) 1995 60s Southern zone Presence of genetic marker character. Tolerant to jassid and Pink bollworm. Moderately resistant to bacterial blight.
Yield potential upto 20 q/ha.
Fiber quaity: length 32.0 mm; strength 25.46 g/tex; GOT 36.63%.
4 OM- Shankar (CSHH 29) 1997 40s Northern cotton belt Early maturing, high yielding hybrid. Suitable for cotton-wheat sequence of north zone. Resistant to Jassids, bollworm and major diseases.
Fiber quaity: length 26.5 mm; strength 22.0 g/tex; GOT 34%.
5 Shresth (CSHH 198) 2005 50s Northern cotton belt ClCuV resistant. The hybrid has good fiber quality and big boll size.
Fiber quaity: length 26.5 mm; strength 23.5 g/tex; GOT 32.5%.
6 Kalyan (CSHH 238) 2007 40s Irrigated areas of north zone. ClCuV resistant with good fiber quality.
Fiber quaity: length 27.2 mm; strength 22.6 g/tex; GOT 33.7%.
7 CSHH 243 2008 50s Irrigated areas of north zone. ClCuV resistant.
Fiber quaity: length 26.7 mm; strength 23.2 g/tex; GOT 33.3%.
Transgenic cotton hybrid
1 NHH 44 Bt 2009 50s Central zone Resistant to bollworms.
Fiber quaity: length 26.6 mm; strength 22.33 g/tex;
Interspecific Hybrid (G hirsutum x G. barbadense)
1 HB 224 1989 80s Irrigated tracts of southern cotton Southern cotton zone Extra long staple hybrid.
Fiber quaity: length 26.6 mm; strength 22.33 g/tex;
2 Shruthi 1997 80s Southern cotton zone Dwarf and compact, short duration hybrid, tolerant to alternaria, grey mildew and bacterial blight.
Fiber quaity: length 35.93 mm; strength 31.0 g/tex; GOT 30.09%.
Intra-arboreum hybrid
1 CICR 2 (CISAA 2) 2004 10s Northern cotton zone GMS based hybrid. Yield potential up 40q/ha. Resistant to Fusarium wilt. Ideal for technical textile and for absorbant cotton.
Fiber quaity: length 26.6 mm; strength 22.33 g/tex;

 

  • Unique germplasm lines registered with NBPGR: foruty nine genetic stocks have been registered for their unique, novel and distinct characteristics. These would serve to generate important cotton genotypes with economically important traits and unique morphological markers
Some unique cultures/lines were registered with NBPGR as Indian National Genetic Resources
Sl No.
INGR No. & YEAR
NATIONAL IDENTITY
DONOR INDETITY
DEVELOPER
NOVEL UNIQUE FEATURES
G. hirsutum
1 10-2000 IC296770 CNO 131 RG Dani Early and synchronous maturity (130-140days ) escaping major pests, highyield (19.5q\ha) with medium ball size and higher percentage of seed oil and seed oil index
2 2012-2002 IC296905 LRA 5166 GMS Line Suman Bala Singh, MG Bhat New GMS line
3 2021-2002 IC325211 CNH 123 V V Singh, Punit Mohan, Joginder Singh ,
MG Bhat
Resistant to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV)
4 5019-2005 IC471863 BN-TOM-277 Shankar Lal Ahuja, SK Banerjee, Jagmail Singh, P Singh, VV Singh, D Monga and
OP Tuteja
Diverse CMS source with Gossypium tomentosum cytoplasm and desirable features
5 5020-2005 IC471864 BN-ARB-16 Shankar Lal Ahuja, SK Banerjee, Jagmail Singh, P. Singh, VV Singh, D. Monga and
OP Tuteja
Diverse CMS source with Gossypium arboreum cytoplasm and desirable features
6 7035-2007 IC549909 CSPF-1 SL Ahuja, KN Gururajan, LS Dhayal,
D Monga and BM Khadi
Pink flower colour mutant
7 7036-2007 IC549924 CPF-1 SL. Ahuja, LS Dhayal, BR Patil, MB Badodkar,
D Monga and BM Khadi
Pink Filament mutant
8 7049-2007 IC538546 BN-RED SL Ahuja, SK Banerjee, J Singh, BM Khadi,
SK Verma, VV Singh, D Monga, OP Tuteja
and LS Dhayal
Resistance to spotted, pink and Heliothis bollworms
9 7050-2007 IC538547 BN-OKRA SL Ahuja, SK Banerjee, J Singh, BM Khadi,
SK Verma, VV Singh, D Monga, OP Tuteja
and LS Dhayal
Resistance to spotted, pink and Heliothis bollworms
10 8031-2008 IC553921 CIR-8 OP Tuteja, SK Verma, BM Khadi and P Singh CMS red plant with bicolor flower
11 8032-2008 IC553923 CIR-12 OP Tuteja, D Monga, BM Khadi and P Singh CMS green plant with yellow petal and anther
12 8033-2008 IC553924 CIR-23 OP Tuteja, D Monga, BM Khadi and P Singh CMS green plant with yellow petal and anther
13 8034-2008 IC553925 CIR-26 OP Tuteja, SK Verma, BM Khadi and P Singh CMS with good fiber properties and agronomic attributes, restores fertility in G. harknessii based CMS
14 8035-2008 IC553926 CIR-32 OP Tuteja, SK Verma, BM Khadi and P Singh CMS green plant with yellow petal and cream anther & bold seed.
15 8036-2008 IC553927 CIR-38 OP Tuteja, Mahender Singh, BM Khadi and
P Singh
CMS Okra type with yellow petal and anther
16 8037-2008 IC553928 CIR-47 OP Tuteja, Mahender Singh, BM Khadi and
P Singh
CMS green plant with yellow petal & anther with highest boll weight
17 8059-2008 IC553272 Raj-2006 S Vennila, RK Lokhand, S Raj and BM Khadi Source of resistance to jassid
18 8088-2008 IC561248 CINHTi 1 Sandhya Kranthi, Keshav Kranthi, Nitin Zade, Virendra Vikram Singh and BM Khadi Trypsin inhibitor mediated tolerance to H. armigera
19 8089-2008 IC561249 CINHTi 2 Sandhya Kranthi, Keshav Kranthi,
Mansi Kshirsagar, Virendra Vikram Singh
and BM Khadi
Trypsin inhibitor mediated tolerance to H. armigera
20 8092-2008 IC563997 MSH-SP-91 Vinita Gotmare, BM Khadi, LA Deshpande,
S Vennila, MK Meshram, KB Hebbar,
Bntule, Chetali Bhagat and NR Titarmare
Multi-species interspecific hybrid with zero monopodia and long pedicel
21 8093-2008 IC563998 MSH-345 Vinita Gotmare, BM Khadi, S Manickam and
Chetali Bhagat
Multi-species interspecific hybrid with cleistogamous flowers and big round bolls (5.5g)
22 10058-2010 IC0584053 ABGMS (CSHN) Suman Bala Singh, AM Badigannavar,
IS Kategiri, BM Khadi, KR Kranti
Genetic male sterility line with curved stigma
23 10060-2010 IC0583997 SLL-33 Punit Mohan, KR Kranthi, Anjali Kak, BR Rode Single leaf lobe (marker trait)
24 10061-2010 IC0583998 YPLL-29 Punit Mohan, KR Kranthi, Anjali Kak, BR Rode Yellow pigmented leaf lobe (marker trait)
25 10062-2010 IC0583999 CSLL-59 Punit Mohan, KR Kranthi, Anjali Kak, BR Rode Cup shaped leaf lobe (marker trait)
26 11061-2011 IC0587405 CNH 301 Suman Bala Singh, AH Prakash & KR Kranthi Drought tolerant nature and yield stability.
27 13032-2013 IC0584260 Vaidehi 95 (MSH-53) Vinita Gotmare, Punit Mohan, Balasubramani, Chetali Rodge, Madhorao Katre, Bntule &
KR Kranthi
Dark brown lint colour.
28 13033-2013 IC0584261 NISC-40 Vinita Gotmare, Chetali Bhagat, Madhorao Katre,
VN Waghmare, G Balsubramni, Bntule & KR Kranthi
Jassid tolerance.
29 13034-2013 IC0584262 NISC-43 Vinita Gotmare, Chetali Bhagat, Madhorao Katre,
VN Waghmare, G Balsubramni, Bntule & KR Kranthi
Jassid tolerance.
30 13035-2013 IC0584263 NISC-44 Vinita Gotmare, Chetali Bhagat, Madhorao Katre,
VN Waghmare, G Balsubramni, Bntule & KR Kranthi
Jassid tolerance.
31 14058-2014 IC0597397 CNH CB 211 Punit Mohan, KR Kranthi, BR Rode,
Vinita Gotmare & Anjali Kak
Cluster boll bearing habit, deeply palmate leaf lobe.
32 14059-2014 IC0597398 CNH CB 212 Punit Mohan, KR Kranthi, BR Rode,
Vinita Gotmare, M Saravanan & Anjali Kak
Cluster boll bearing habit, zero monopodia and compact habit.
33 15015-2015 IC0611336 CNH-1102 Vijay N Waghmare and RV Salame For high ginning outturn
G arboreum
1 17-2000 IC296777 G-135-49 Punit Mohan, PM Mukewar, V V Singh,
MS Kairon
Immune to grey mould (Ramularia areola) in different gentic backgrounds
2 18-2000 IC296778 30805 Punit Mohan, PM Mukewar, V V Singh,
MS Kairon
Immune to grey mould (Ramularia areola) in different gentic backgrounds
3 2020-2002 IC296857 30838 Punit Mohan, PN Mukewar, V V Singh ,
CD Mayee
Immuned to gray mould ( Ramularia areola)
4 4079-2004 IC296596 CINA-316 Phundan Singh, Punit Mohan High locule retention and low short fiber content
5 8090-2008 IC563968 ABC-5 BM Khadi, V Santhy, IS Kategari and
Vinita Gotmare
Interspecific hybrid with five loculed bolls/capsules
6 8091-2008 IC563969 CATS-18 BM Khadi, V Santhy and IS Kategari Thermo-sensitive genetic male sterile
7 9117-2009 IC439707 30814 Punit Mohan, PM Mukewar, KR Kranthi Immune to grey mildew (Ramularia areola)
8 9118-2009 IC439721 30826 Punit Mohan, PM Mukewar, KR Kranthi Immune to grey mildew (Ramularia areola)
9 9119-2009 IC439749 30856 Punit Mohan, PM Mukewar, KR Kranthi Immune to grey mildew (Ramularia areola)
10 10057-2010 IC0538548 CISA-2(GMS) line OP Tuteja, SK Verma, D Monga, P Singh Spontaneous genetic male sterile mutant with yellow open flower and red petal spot and green plant body
11 10059-2010 IC583996 CINA-333 Punit Mohan, KR Kranthi,
Harish Kumbhalkar, Anjali Kak
High seed cotton yield potential cultivar, high volume of capsule, long claw of petals
12 14005-2014 IC0597395 CNA 5 Vinita Gotmare, Punit Mohan, Madhorao katre, BN Tule, M Saravanan, BR Rode, S Manickam, OP Tuteja, PK chakrabarty & KR Kranthi Inter-racial pigmented arboreum.
13 15005-2015 IC0613959 CNA 405 Punit Mohan, BR Rode, KR Kranthi, Sujata Saxena, Ravi Nagarkar & V Santhy For narrow leaf lobed & brown lint.
14 15016-2015 IC0613964 CNA-1051 Vijay N Waghmare and RV Salame For distinct yellow top leaves
15 15024-2015 IC0613960 CNA 407 (NLL-Spotted Petals) Punit Mohan, BR Rode, KR Kranthi, Sujata Saxena, Ravi D Nagarkar and V Santhy Narrow leaf lobed, spotted petals and brown linted.
16 15025-2015 IC0613961 CNA 407 (NLL-Spottless Petals) Punit Mohan, BR Rode, KR Kranthi, Sujata Saxena, Ravi D Nagarkar and V Santhy Narrow leaf lobed, spotless petals and brown linted

 

  • Cytoplasmic and genetic male sterility :  under the diversification and utilization of male sterility system, 82 genotypes were converted under CMS background, 66 genotypes were converted under GMS background. 12 GMS based hybrids were found to be promising in AICCIP trials.
  • Development of TGMS System : Temperature sensitive genetic male sterile lines have been identified both in G. arboreum and G. hirsutum. They are being stabilized for utilization in the development of two line system of hybrid seed production in cotton.
  • Development of apomixes: The apomixes phenomenon was confirmed in G.hirsutum.
    Seed production : Hard seed coat was found to be inherited from female parent. Exposure of seed to 90 °C in water or soaking the seed in ethyl alcohol for 10 minutes helped in overcoming hard seed coat.
  • NAA (20 ppm) and DAP (2%) spayed four times during crossing period – improved hybrid seed yield. Application of GA3 (50 ppm) overcame the adverse effect of injury during emasculation and resulted in improved boll-setting and hybrid seed yield.
  • Topping 30 days after square initiation and foliar application of  Lihocin (50 ppm) improved the seed quality. Trimming of parents of GMS based hybrids facilitated cultivation of three crops with 30 to 40% reduction in seed production cost. Higher dose of nitrogen followed by foliar application of boron and zinc improved seed quality and yield. Employing honeybees for hybrid seed production was found feasible in cotton.

Biotechnology

  • New Bt genes were designed indigenously, synthesized into gene constructs and are being used in the genetic transformation of cotton. The institute has developed several other transgenic events with Bt genes in G. hirsutum cotton. The institute played a stellar role in supporting research for the introduction and popularization of Bt-cotton in India.
  • Development of promising Bt varieties/ hybrids for insect pest resistance : Few more varieties like Anjali Bt, LRA-5166 Bt (G.hirsutum) and Desi cotton (G. arboreum) variety, RG-8 Bt are under pipeline for the commercial release. Few prominent hybrids (NHH 44Bt, DBtH1, DBtH2, and DBtH5) are under the large scale trial (LST) for commercial release and these would provide alternatives for the farmers interested for hybrid cultivation.
  • Development of CLCuV resistant transgenics : Generation of transformants using embryonic axis as an explant with Sense Coat Protein (SCP), Antisense Coat Protein (ACP), Antisense Rep (ARep) gene constructs driven by 35 S CaMV and npt II as selection marker by  Agrobacterium mediated transformation in three genotypes H 777, HS 6, F 846. Molecular analysis of putative transformants by PCR for sense and antisense coat protein gene, antisense Rep gene has confirmed the presence of gene in the transformants. In H 777-3 T0 plants each with SCP, ACP and A Rep, in HS 6-2 T0 plants with ACP and A Rep and F 846-3 T0 plants each with SCP, ACP, A Rep respectively were grown in the polyhouse and T1 plants were confirmed for specific genes with the primers.
  • Improvement of fibre strength : Attempts are being made to clone cellulose synthase gene (AthA and AthAB) from  Arabidopsis which brings about rapid conversion of carbon to UDP glucose to facilitate high fibre strength. cDNA clones were made and the expected amplicons were subjected to sequence analysis and work is in progress.
  • Drought resistance genes : Intensive efforts are underway to clone and characterize native genes from cotton viz., protease inhibitor involved in pest resistance and osmotin and dehydrin genes that govern tolerance of cotton to drought.
  • Molecular breeding : Making framework linkage maps in diploid cotton (A genome) and G. hirsutum has been initiated. Priority is for making fibre quality traits (QTLs) such as fibre strength, fibre length and micronaire, oil content and also ginning outturn a major economics trait in diploid and tetraploid cotton. Mapping populations for these traits have been developed in diploid as well as G.hirsutum. The growing information on these aspects will help in Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) in cotton.
  • Molecular detection of cotton fungal pathogen : Species-specific primers and PCR protocols developed for precise detection and differentiation of four major economically important fungal pathogens of cotton viz., R. areola, R. bataticola, R. solani and A. macrospora.
  • Nodule Induction in cotton : Cotton plants were subjected to root nodule induction by Rhizobium fredii. Six individual plants of Anjuli and two of LRA 5166 produced nodules in their root system. Although bacteriods were present in the nodules, nitrogenase activity was not recorded. The observation opens up the possibility of nodulation and nitrogen fixation by virulent Rhizobia in non-legume plants like cotton.
  • Molecular basis of pathogenicity of Xam : Genes governing pigmentation, exopolysaccharide production and pathogenicity in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam) have been reported for the first time to be plasmid-borne.
  • Two plasmid-borne pathogenicity genes pthN and pthN2 were successfully cloned and characterized. pthN (3.6 kb) is completely sequenced and available in GenBank (AF016221).
  • The genes cloned from Xam strain are perhaps the first genes cloned as pathogenicity genes unlike all other members, which were cloned as avr genes. Cloning, characterization and sequencing of pathogenicity genes in a strain of Xam and delineation of its function lead to understanding of vital aspects of cotton-Xam interactions.
  • Races specific molecular marker of Xam : RFLP marker, capable of identifying the most virulent race 18 strain of Xam has been developed.
  • PCR detection of CLCuV : A pair of primer designed to detect CLCuV in infected cotton plants as well as symptomless host by amplification of a 0.7 kb coat protein gene of the virus has been developed. The PCR protocol is simple and can be accomplished within 1.44 h.
  • Immunological detection of CLCuV : Simple tissue imprint blotting protocol for detection of CLCuV infection is developed. The twig imprints of the infected and healthy plants were obtained on the NC membrane. Virus infected plants can be observed by chromogenic detection using anti-CaLCuV (Cabbage leaf curl virus) antibody.
  • Documentation of CLCuV symptoms on cotton : Six different symptoms types of cotton leaf curl virus disease viz., upward and downward curling of lamina, severe and mild curling, vein-thickening and enation, were documented based on a survey of disease in states of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, where the disease is prevalent.
  • Characterisation of CLCuV strains : Sequencing of viral genomes from six different symptomatic plants revealed wide variability in nucleotide sequences of DNAA and a-DNA indicating possibilities of existence of different strains capable of inducing variable symptoms and disease severity.
  • Standardised protocol for detection of transgene from matured fibres (lint ) samples of GM and non GM cotton 
    A protocol was developed for the detection of cry1Ac gene (787 bp) and Gh actin (370 bp) (nuclear gene) from matured cotton fibre DNA. PCR amplification of chloroplast specific marker and microsatellite marker (nuclear) from matured cotton fibre DNA of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense was standardized.
    A new method was developed to isolate DNA from cotton fibres and test for the presence/absence of GM-events for the purposes of ‘organic – certification’

Seed Production and Seed Quality Improvement

  • Enhancement of seed germination and vigor : The size graded seeds of G. hirsutum varieties were evaluated to study the effect of seed index on field emergence and seed cotton yield. The seeds with highest index (ranging from 8.5 to 10.0g) gave highest emergence (96%) and seed cotton yield (780 kg/ha). The seed cotton yield from the seeds with lower index (ranging from 7.0 to 8.0g) followed next (662 kg/ha). The seeds with lowest seed index (less than 7.0 g) gave the least seed cotton yield over varieties (530 kg/ha.) Among the seed hardening treatments the controlled hydration of seeds over night was more effective for early and higher emergence under low soil moisture level (at 40%) compared to the control.
  • Development of efficient agro-techniques for enhancing productivity and seed quality in cotton : The application of salicylic acid @ 0.25% at 30 days after flowering gave higher seed cotton yield over control in first picking. However, application of lihocin @100 ppm at flower initiation gave higher seed cotton yield in second picking. The results indicated that salicylic acid application hastened the crop maturity compared to control and lihocin application. Seed index and seedling vigor was significantly superior in all treatments over control.
  • Testing & Documentation of Extant Varieties, hybrids and their Parents for Distinctness, Uniformity & Stability - Implementation of PVP legislation : Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability testing of tetraploid cotton genotypes were taken up in two trials comprising 5 and 23 candidate varieties, respectively. Similar trial was conducted for diploid cotton with one candidate and two reference varieties. The complete expression of desired morphological characteristics of seedling, leaf, flower, boll and fibre were measured. The characters were recorded from seedling to maturity adopting the procedure of approved national test guidelines for tetraploid cotton. Registration of extant and new cotton varieties under PPV&FR Act, 2001 was initiated. In the first phase. Sixty one application forms comprising of new and extant cotton varieties were submitted to PPV&FRA through NBPGR. Under the programme of maintenance of reference collection Fifty four G. hirsutum and ten G. barbadense genotypes were maintained. A database on varieties released by CVRC or State Varietal Release committee and in common knowledge/farmer's varieties, etc., was composed.
  • Film coating of cotton seeds with polymers: Seed deterioration can be prevented up to 18 months of storage and can retain the viability of 77% when pre cleaned seeds were coated with seed polymer polykote @ 3ml/kg of seed diluted with 5 ml water combined with carbendazim (Bavistin) @ 2 g /kg and the seeds are stored in cloth bag under ambient condition. Viability can also be retained to 76% by coating the seeds with polykote @ 3ml/kg of seed diluted with 5 ml water combined with carbendazim (Bavistin ) @ 2 g /kg and Imida cloprid @ 7g /kg when seeds are stored in polythene bags.
  • Varietal Characterisation and DUS testing: Extant Cotton genotypes of 300 in tetraploid and diploid species have been morphologically characterized and digitalized. Working germplasm lines of 333 received from CICR, Nagpur were characterized for Distinctiveness, uniformity and stability test adopting the procedures of national test guidelines for tetraploid cotton. The variability observed for growth habit and reproductive traits are furnished below. Germplasm lines such as XAB 5 X TANGUIS -126 –DH ,LYY, 21-1-1-4-5, 62 -2- (S) 2-3, BMCOT 95 BLL, B 4 EMPIRE, SAJAR 314, SOBHAGYA, TEXAS- 1050, CSH – 911, Arizona super okr leaf (green), MDH 89, MDH 90, B 56- 181, KEKCHI(RED), 101-102 B were identified for early compact, dwarf types with high yielding ability with good fiber traits.
  • Registration of extant cotton varieties under PPV&FRA: 93 PVP registration application submitted. 46 cotton varieties for which protection certificates received. 20 extant cotton varieties for which application closed due to protection period in over. 27 extant cotton varieties application in process.
Research Achievements under National Seed Project (Crops)
  • Electrophoretic analysis of seed proteins performed using Tris Soluble Proteins, Salt Soluble Globulins and Methanol precipitated fraction, separated by SDS-PAGE method for two hybrids (Sruthi Savita, G.Cot.MDH 11), Salt Soluble Globulins method gave results. Presence of protein bands, position of bands and intensity of bands recorded for samples showed differences and were utilized for varietal characterization and identification.
  • Seed coating of NHH 44Bt. Seeds revealed that  Polymer coating (Polykote @ 3 ml/kg of seed), diluted with 5 ml of  water with insecticide (Imidacloprid @ 6ml / kg of seed) or Polymer + Royal flow 40 SC @ 2.4 ml/kg seed + insecticide(Imidacloprid @ 6ml / kg of seed) was found better in retaining the seed viability under ambient storage condition.
  • Experiment conducted under ambient condition to find out the efficacy of seed priming with PPFM bacterial formulation under regulated soil moisture. Cotton seeds were primed with one percent PPFM culture formulation. The quantity of water to be used for irrigating the pot was calculated based on weight loss of soil medium. The data thus recorded showed an improvement in seed germination of 71.5% as against 57.5 % in untreated seeds at 10% soil moisture. Sowing primed seeds on soil moisture above 35% did not encourage seed germination.

 

Information compiled, Page designed and developed by Dr. M. Sabesh, Sr. Scientist, CICR
Page created in 2002; Last updated on 08:02:2018